Body Identity Dysphoria

Body Integrity Dysphoria (BID) was till now named as well as Body Integrity Identity Disorder (BIID), Xenomelia, Amutee Identity Disorder or Apotemnophilia. In der year 2019 the admission of BID for the 11th edition in the ICD took place (ICD= International Classification of Diseases). Therefore the term was changed to “BID” by the experts.

The original text may be checked here:

ICD-11 for Mortality and Morbidity Statistics: 6C21 Body integrity dysphoria

6C21 Body integrity dysphoria

Body integrity dysphoria is characterized by an intense and persistent desire to become physically disabled in a significant way (e.g., major limb amputee, paraplegic, blind), with onset by early adolescence accompanied by persistent discomfort, or intense feelings of inappropriateness concerning current non-disabled body configuration. The desire to become physically disabled results in harmful consequences, as manifested by either the preoccupation with the desire (including time spent pretending to be disabled) significantly interfering with productivity, with leisure activities, or with social functioning (e.g., person is unwilling to have a close relationships because it would make it difficult to pretend) or by attempts to actually become disabled have resulted in the person putting his or her health or life in significant jeopardy.

(Text by Advisory Board Member Prof. Dr. Erich Kasten)

The extent of the psychological strain is not objectively measurable, but, to get an idea, the persons concerned speak of a daily time-consuming preoccupation with their own bodies. This preoccupation is very energy-consuming so that other daily activities suffer. The body parts in question are only used reluctantly or not at all, and any movement feels wrong or alien in every possible situation.

Moreover, the psychological strain is reinforced by the shame that goes along with such perceptions of one’s body. The people concerned do not dare to confide in persons close to them.


The cause of this pathology, which is also known as Body Integrity Dysphoria BID (former Body Integrity Disorder) or xenomelia, is still unclear. Some research has already found possible explanations that could be assumed on a brain-neurological level or psychological level. However, more research is needed to get a more concrete picture of this disorder.

See more at RESEARCH.